Small, but beautiful

A group of expert marine biologists have been working on the Ness lately, all in search of some very tiny members of the natural world.
Ranger David Mason explains more.

The natural world is a constant marvel and there are many wow moments when its secrets are revealed, especially when experts in a field which seems obscure, mostly because things are small or inaccessible, visit your site and reveal what lies beneath.

The latest of these moment occurred when our friends from Seasearch visited Orford Ness recently with expert marine biologists in search of Bryozoa.
What the heck are those I hear you cry! Or was that just me?
Wikipedia tells us…
‘The Bryozoa, also known as Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals,[5] are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. Typically about 0.5 millimetres (0.020 in) long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a “crown” of tentacles lined with cilia. Most marine species live in tropical waters, but a few occur in oceanic trenches, and others are found in polar waters. One class lives only in a variety of freshwater environments, and a few members of a mostly marine class prefer brackish water. Over 4,000 living species are known. One genus is solitary and the rest colonial. [5] Brusca; Brusca. “21: The Lophophorate Phyla”. The Invertebrates.’

Generally speaking, Bryozoa usually look like encrustations on sticks, roots, seaweed, rocks etc, and they are prey for a variety of other marine animals like sea slugs, starfish and sea urchins.
Both underwater and under the microscope their true beauty is revealed as each cell comes to life.


“Bryozoa”, from Ernst Haeckel’s Kunstformen der Natur, 1904

You may have seen one of these on the beach, as Hornwrack is a colony of these creatures.

© Hans Hillewaert / CC-BY-SA-3.0

© Hans Hillewaert / CC-BY-SA-3.0

These creatures can be indicators of environmental change, and even today, species previously unrecorded in our waters are being found all the time.

Bryozoa can be so tiny that more than one species can found colonising together, such as on this piece of bladderwrack, which is home to three different species.

Along with the Natural History Museum, who will be collating the data, Seasearch have set up monitoring schemes around the country, including here on Orford Ness, to record how these species colonise sites over time.

Several of our volunteers helped the Seasearch team construct a series of monitoring stations, which use acrylic glass plates that encourage colonisation, but also can be easily viewed and monitored over time.




These stations will be located in various water bodies on the Ness and checked periodically to study what is here, and measure how long it takes for various known species to colonise the plates and when new species arrive.

This will help create baseline data for future studies to build on.


On the trail of water voles

For a species that is absolutely flourishing on Orford Ness, water voles are also one of the most elusive, and like to keep themselves well hidden.

But like most wildlife, if you know what to look for, there are plenty of clues to be found about what they’ve been up to and where they’ve been.
Ranger David Mason is the chief water vole detective on site and here he shares some of the signs that he looks out for to monitor these shy mammals that are so at home here.

The water vole population on the Ness is one that is thriving, and their tracks and signs can be seen along most of the ditches including the new ones put in during the LIFE project.

Both The Mammal Society and The Wildlife Trusts describe how the numbers of water voles in Britain have severely declined and that they are legally protected.
Loss of habitat is one of the main reasons for this decline in numbers, as well as through predation from the introduced American mink.
Water voles are thought to have disappeared from more than 90% of their former sites, so it is great to see them doing so well on the Ness, particularly in the new habitat areas created by the LIFE+ project that was completed this year.

So what are the signs we’re looking for when we’re monitoring water vole activity?
This photo shows short pieces of fresh vegetation cut at 45 degrees, some dung, and lots of footprints.

But it would be easy to miss these signs, so we keep our eyes peeled!
So, once we have found a hole in the bank….

Water voles Nov14b

…a pile of dung, which the females deposit in small piles to mark their territory, usually on a prominent feature like a plank bridge, a lump of earth  or at the junction of two ditches…

Water voles Nov14c

…or a footprint in the mud at the edge of a ditch…

Water voles Nov14d

…we can stake the area out to confirm our suspicions about who is responsible and then we can place infra-red trail cameras that are triggered by movement and can see in the dark, so we have been able to capture night time footage of the voles in action, which you can see here.
Easy when you know how!


A hidden history

As you’d probably expect, National Trust places around the country have been homes to a huge range of archaeological finds over the years.
Indeed, just a few miles away from Orford Ness, Sutton Hoo was the site of one of the most significant finds ever made.

But whilst the history that the Ness is famous for is more recent, it is hugely important, both to help us learn and reflect on the military ambitions of the past and to help shape the future management of what is now an internationally valued nature reserve.

Ranger David Mason tells us about a recent archaeological survey into some of the Ness’ military occupation during the First World War.

“Here on the Ness, whilst we are constantly vigilant for the unexploded ordnance that this former military testing site is littered with – and that emerges from the depths of the shingle every now and then – many of our historical artefacts are already above ground.

The site is littered with military debris, and whilst those huge blocks of concrete and broken pieces of metal could once be considered just the messy remains of the Ness’ past, they now provide interesting habitats, shelter and shade for the wildlife that thrives here.

In an area of wet grassland along the Green Route, which is now occupied by short-eared owls, marsh harriers, otters and avocet, there is a hidden history marked by a group of gorse bushes and brambles where a family of stonechats greet passers-by.

A scatter of pottery from 1917, a line of wooden posts (possibly part of a latrine), some concrete foundations near a bend in the river wall and a grid of shallow drainage trenches are all that remains of the once busy Chinese Labour Corps and Prisoner of War camps that occupied this part of Kings Marsh during the First World War.
A recent archaeological survey found and recorded some of these remains.


Concrete foundations from a long-gone building

Pottery remains

Pottery remains

These groups provided a labour force that worked on the airfield and river walls but little is known about their lives.
The Chinese Wall, an internal flood defence that divided the Airfield from Kings Marsh, was named after the Chinese labourers that worked here.
Paddy Heazell’s book Most Secret – The Hidden History of Orford Ness refers to them digging blocks of clay and passing them hand to hand.
The bank you see today is a much larger version, built by machine after the 1953 floods.
The line of the old wall is marked on the roadside by one half of a concrete flood-gate into which boards could be dropped to protect the airfield.
There is an aerial photo of the camps in the Information Building on the Ness and in the National Trust guidebook showing a group of tents, but this one shows a group of large huts in the same place.


All of the buildings have disappeared and we know very little about the people that lived in them.”
We would love to know and understand more about the lives of the people who lived and worked here, and are always grateful when people get in touch to tell us about their own knowledge of the history of this special place.
Please do send us a comment if you think you can add to our history files.

The ABC of a SSSI

One of the most unusual coastal sites in the UK, Orford Ness is also one of the most unusual places cared for by the National Trust.

A place where military history and rare wildlife come together. Photo: David Crawshaw

A place where military history and rare wildlife come together.
Photo: David Crawshaw

A National Nature Reserve (NNR), the Ness has been looked after by the Trust since 1993.
There are parts of the history of this special place that are shrouded in mystery, such as its former life as a military weapons testing site. We have learnt a lot about that history over the years, but there are some secrets about the work that took place here that we will perhaps never know.

Looking at the Ness as a haven for nature and wildlife, it is a place with so many national and international designations that whilst there are no secrets about the special nature of this land, it can be a confusing subject.

Orford Ness is managed principally as a conservation site and we work hard to find a balance between that conservation work and ensuring access for visitors, which is why we have specified visitor routes and take bird breeding seasons into account when planning our opening times.
It is a delicate balance with a site that is recognised on the international stage for the value of the wildlife and nature here.

From breeding sites for wetland and ground-nesting birds, to the rare and constantly changing shingle coastline to unusual plantlife and rare aquatic invertebrates, Orford Ness is a valuable place that we are caring for both now, and for the future.

Such is the recognition of the Ness, that reading the list of designations it holds can feel a bit like a trip to the opticians – as well as an NNR, it is also a SSSI site and holds GCR, SAC, SPA, Ramsar and Natura 2000 designations.

So what do all those designations mean for the site and the wildlife here?
Here’s our whistle-stop tour of the ABC of a SSSI!

NNR – National Nature Reserve
Natural England is the body that will declare an NNR in England and it manages around two thirds of them, with the rest managed by approved organisations, which includes the National Trust.
Natural England describe NNRs as: “Initially established to protect sensitive features and to provide ‘outdoor laboratories’ for research. Their purpose has widened since those early days. As well as managing some of our most pristine habitats, our rarest species and our most significant geology, most Reserves now offer great opportunities to the public as well as schools and specialist audiences to experience England’s natural heritage.”
You can find out more by visiting the Natural England website.

SSSI – Site of Special Scientific Interest
Like many NNRs, Orford Ness is also a SSSI, again, this is a designation given to a site by Natural England, who say: “SSSIs are the country’s very best wildlife and geological sites. They include some of our most spectacular and beautiful habitats: large wetlands teeming with waders and waterfowl, winding chalk rivers, gorse and heather-clad heathlands, flower-rich meadows, windswept shingle beaches, remote uplands, moorland and peat bog.”
Just like Natural England, we believe that these special places, such as the Ness, need to be cared for in a way that respects wildlife and ensures it will be there for benefit of future generations.
You can find out more about SSSI here.

SAC – Special Area of Conservation
All SAC sites in England are SSSI and this is a special protection given under the European Union’s Habitats Directive. The addition of an SAC designation means that some or all of the wildlife habitats are particularly valued in a European context.
The designation information for Orford Ness says the site was chosen because: “it supports some of the largest and most natural sequences in the UK of shingle vegetation affected by salt spray”.
It is a requirement that SAC sites are managed favourably for conservation.
You can find out more about SAC from Natural England or from the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

GCR – Geological Conservation Review
The Geological Conservation Review was launched in 1977 as a major initiative to identify the most important geological sites in Britain.
The initiative is described by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee as: “The GCR was designed to identify those sites of national and international importance needed to show all the key scientific elements of the Earth heritage of Britain. These sites display sediments, rocks, fossils, and features of the landscape that make a special contribution to our understanding and appreciation of Earth science and the geological history of Britain, which stretches back hundreds of millions of years.”
You can find out more at GCR by visiting the JNCC website.

SPA – Special Protection Area
This designation is all about birds and birdlife. Using criteria that were set by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, SPA sites are also SSSI.
Natural England describe SPA as: “… an area of land, water or sea which has been identified as being of international importance for the breeding, feeding, wintering or the migration of rare and vulnerable species of birds found within the European Union. SPAs are European designated sites, classified under the European Wild Birds Directive which affords them enhanced protection.”
There is an incredible array of birds that are attracted to Orford Ness, and the habitat available to them has been greatly enhanced thanks to the completion of a major project that has been underway for the last few years.
We are fortunate to also have a team of British Trust for Ornithology-registered volunteers who monitor the birds at Orford Ness. There are often opportunities for our visitors to meet them and see them at work as they ring the birds and collect valuable data.
You can find out more about SPA by visiting the Natural England website.

An international agreement signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, this agreement is focused on the conservation of wetland sites of international importance.
Orford Ness is protected under this agreement for its wetlands and marshes that offer vital habitats for breeding birds and wildlife.
Ramsar status can be given using a number of different criteria, one of which is if the site “supports vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered species of threatened ecological communities.”
You can read more about the designation on the Natural England website or visit the Ramsar website.

Natura 2000
Last, but certainly not least, is Natura 2000.
This is a network of sites across Europe and designed to ensure the survival in the long-term of Europe’s most valuable and threatened habitats.
Natura 2000 is a network of SPA and SAC sites and was created in 1992.
Orford Ness is home to a such a wide range of species that as already listed, it is both an SPA and SAC site as well as being part of the Natura 2000 network.
You can find out more about Natura 2000 here.

Take a closer look

Summer holidays may be over for the year, but there are still plenty of opportunities to visit the Ness for one of our special events and tours.
Whether your interest is photography or learning more about our conservation work, why not consider joining us for a more in-depth experience.

Photo tours

Each year we hold a number of guided photography tours, led by a professional photographer and one of our rangers. The tours offer a chance to see the Ness in new and unusual ways, as well as getting up close to some of the wildlife that thrives here.
We also spend time in and around the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment buildings and the distinctive ‘pagodas’ for a chance to capture some unique images of these unusual buildings.
Booking for the tours is essential and our next dates for a full-day tour are Saturday October 4 and Saturday October 18 and they cost £50 for NT members and £60 for non-members. We’ll take you over to the Ness on the National Trust boat, Octavia at 9am and return to Orford Quay at 5pm.
We’ll be walking long distances throughout the day, so only bring equipment you can carry and sufficient clothing for all day outdoors on what can be a very windy site!
You can book your place on the two remaining tours of the year by calling 01394 450900.

On September 21, the Marine Conversation Society will be holding a beach clean-up as part of the International Coastal Clean-up, which takes places in more than 70 countries.
We’ll be meeting at the barrier beyond the Martello Tower at Slaughden, near Aldeburgh at 10am. You’ll need to dress for what could be mucky work, but equipment will be provided. Please register to let us know you’ll be taking part by calling us on 01394 450900.

In both September and October, there are chances to find out more about the work of the our bird ringers.
We are lucky to have a team of volunteer ringers who carry out this important work on the Ness and you’ll be able to spend an hour with them to see them at work.
There’s no additional charge for these, just meet outside the Rangers Office at 11am on either September 27 or October 11.

Route to the beach re-opened

Several severe winter storms and the tidal surge that hit the East Coast of the UK in December 2013 caused significant damage to many stretches of coastline, towns and villages, and the clean-up operation is still underway in many of those places.

On Orford Ness, there was severe damage caused to embankments and the drainage infrastructure. The stormy weather, high winds and the sea whipped up by the wild conditions also badly damaged two structures close to the beach.

The 19th century Coastguard Lookout, which closed in 1957, was already in a poor condition and an annexe accommodation building was destroyed, with the remainder of the main structure further de-stabilised.
Further along the beach, a wooden, lattice structured tower, known as the Police Tower as it was part of a security perimeter around the Atomic Weapons testing facility, was undermined, further damaged and left tilted at a rather rakish angle as a result of several metres of shingle beach being washed away.
More than sixty years of the rigours imposed by the very saline environment has not helped the structures either.

Police Tower after the December 2013 tidal surge

Police Tower after the December 2013 tidal surge

Coastguard Lookout building after the December 2013 tidal surge

Coastguard Lookout building after the December 2013 tidal surge

The two structures sat at each corner of a section of the main visitor route on the Ness, so, with safety in mind, we decided it was sensible to close this section until the buildings could be made safe and secure.
That work has now been completed and the route has been re-opened, so once again visitors can enjoy the full experience of Orford Ness and walk to and along the beach on their way around the visitor route.

As well as structural surveys, some fencing and clearance work was also carried out.
However, as you might imagine on a former weapons testing site, things are rarely simple and as the work sites were adjacent to the main bombing ranges, an Explosive Ordnance Disposal unit had to be called in to make sure the site was free from explosives before even a single fence post could be driven in.
Luckily, and unusually for the Ness, nothing was discovered!

LIFE+ breeds new life!

The EU-funded LIFE+ project on the Ness is now complete and we are delighted to report that 2014 has been a hugely successful breeding year, highlighted by Common Tern chicks fledging here for the first time in 50 years!

Common Tern Picture: North East Wildlife

Common Tern
Picture: North East Wildlife

Breeding birds play a huge role in the diverse wildlife on the Ness. Sometimes, we ask visitors to avoid an area or a certain part of a route to avoid disturbance, and we are grateful to all those who help us give the birds some space – it has certainly paid off.

We have had more Redshank and Lapwing chicks fledging than in recent years, whilst areas cleared of rush and rank grass in the late autumn and the creation of a network of foot-drains (linear scrapes) in 2013 also proved attractive to the Lapwings, with juveniles regularly seen from the red route feeding on invertebrates around the muddy edges.

Three Oystercatcher chicks have fledged so far and are the first known to do so on site since 2006. Avocets have also had their most productive year for a while with 47 pairs and at least 18 juveniles fledging.

Avocet and chicks

Avocet and chicks

One of the highlights of the year has been the return of Common Tern to Orford Ness as a breeding species. At the time of writing, two chicks have fledged and another is close to doing so. Since the 1960’s, the only breeding record was an unsuccessful attempt on King’s Marsh in 2012, so the chicks are probably the first in 50 years, and we are absolutely delighted to see them here.

The new lagoons on King’s Marsh held over 90 pairs of Black-headed Gull, many of the breeding pairs of Avocets and also at least 15 pairs of Common Terns.
As water levels start to drop, flocks of Dunlin, Godwit, and Spoonbill are being attracted in to feed and roost on the exposed mud whilst large numbers of Little Egret on the marshes give the site a rather exotic feel.

We couldn’t do it without them!

A dedicated group of volunteers who give up their time every week to help keep Orford Ness open to visitors have been thanked by the National Trust.

The National Nature Reserve’s unusual landscape is home to such rare wildlife that it is recognised as being of international conservation importance.
Visitors to the National Trust site are always keen to learn more about the wildlife habitats and it is largely thanks to the hard work and dedication of volunteers that they are able to find out so much about this special place.

More than 30 National Trust Volunteers at Orford Ness carry out a wide variety of roles, from helping bring people to the site, helping them find their way around, answering questions about the wildlife and history of the former MoD weapons testing site, to gathering detailed data about the birds and wildlife that make the Ness their home.

On Sunday July 13, the annual Community Day that invites residents from the surrounding villages of Orford & Gedgrave, Butley, Iken, Sudbourne and Boyton to visit the Ness for free took place.
After a day of welcoming visitors, the team held their annual summer barbecue, with a number of volunteers receiving awards for dedication that has seen them clock up 130 years of volunteering between them.

Countryside Manager Grant Lohoar presented 12 volunteers with their commemorative five year badges, whilst there was also applause for volunteer and specialist bird ringer Gillian Stannard, who received her ten year badge.
A celebration cake, commemorative badges and letters from Regional Director Ben Cowell were presented to three volunteers who have each given 20 years of volunteering to the Ness.
Silke Miles, Mike Marsh and David Crawshaw were all thanked for their hard work.

Mr Lohoar told the volunteer team: “We have all said that we couldn’t do it without you, and we are so lucky to have you all here, doing the jobs you do.
“Through all the continued hard work, some of the team have amassed a huge amount of information that is so valuable to us and they continue to do so, and we can only thank them from the bottom of our hearts.”

Peter Whiley, himself a volunteer of 16 years who is also the Volunteer Co-ordinator for Orford Ness, said: “More than half of the team have done ten or more years of volunteering here. We are team who all get on well and everyone mucks in.
“We’re all people who like to be out and about and enjoy helping to care for the wonderful wildlife and birdlife here – it’s not a bad way to spend your time!”

Community Day is on the way

Every year at Orford Ness, we have a day when people living in the surrounding communities can visit for free, meet with our team and find out the latest about what is happening on the Ness.

This Sunday will see the 2014 Community Day take place, and, as always, we look forward to welcoming people from the villages of Orford and Gedgrave, Butley, Iken, Sudbourne and Boyton to the Ness.

There will be lots of news to share with you this year, particularly as we are now in the final stages of completing the LIFE+ project, which has seen us create habitats for a wide range of birds and other wildlife. We have been delighted with the numbers of birds breeding on the Ness this year and our conservation work on this very special place will continue to grow.

As many local people will know, Orford Ness is a place of great importance, both here in the UK and on a wider international stage too. A National Nature Reserve, it is also a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and has been given some of the most important nature designations in Europe.

People come from far and wide to visit the Ness and we are always pleased to meet them and share information about what makes this place so special.
For those visitors living closer, we hope our Community Day is a great opportunity to visit the Ness, find out the latest news, discover more about our conservation work and how we care for a landscape that has such an extraordinary past, but always with the future in our minds.

People living in Orford and Gedgrave, Butley, Iken, Sudbourne and Boyton will have received a voucher in the parish magazine, which can be exchanged for tickets at the National Trust Quay Office on Sunday.
The first boat over to the Ness will leave at 10am and the last boat over at 1.40pm. The last boat returning to the Quay will be at 5pm.

We hope to see you there!

The Secret Landscape

The challenging landscape of Orford Ness has taken on a new artistic appearance, thanks to the arrival of a new art installation.

The installation, by Anya Gallaccio, is made up of a series of large panels featuring images made using extreme magnification photography, that have been placed around the site for visitors to discover.

The project is part of the 1418NOW programme, which has commissioned a series of artists to create artworks, installations, poetry, sculpture and more to mark the centenary of the First World War.
The installation, called The Secret Landscape, was commissioned by the SNAP arts project, which is part of the annual Aldeburgh Festival, and Anya’s works will also be on display at Snape Maltings.

The installation references the almost abstract quality of early war aerial photographs as well as the experiments in air bombing and weapons development that took place at Orford Ness.
In keeping with the theme of the 1418NOW programme, Gallaccio was inspired to create the panels by the mysterious miltary past of the Ness as well as its unique geological landscape.
The photography used on the panels references these two elements of the Ness and are actually of a pebble taken from an area reserved for safely exploding the live ordnance that is still found here.
The broken pieces of the pebble have been magnified 20,000 times under a microscope to look like early aerial photographs.

The panels have been created using a canvas that will allow the wind to blow through them – an essential on the Ness! – and have been sited so visitors walking near to the Bomb Ballistics building, the Black Beacon and Lab 1, all buildings that date back to the Ness’ time as a military test site, will be able to get up close to view them, or choose to look from a distance.

This week, we welcomed a number of journalists to Orford Ness to see the artworks up close and to meet Anya and the SNAP team and hear more about both the installation, and the history of the military experimentation on the Ness.

The Secret Landscape

If you are visiting us this month, be sure to take a look The Secret Landscape, which will be here throughout June.